Volume 27, Number 12 (Monthly-Mar 2017) | J Urmia Univ Med Sci 2017, 27(12): 1058-1067 | Back to browse issues page



DOI: 10.18869/acadpub.umj.27.12.1058

XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Amirsasan R, Esmaeili A, Dabbagh Nikokheslat S, Karimi P. The effect of Aerobic Training on Serotonin and Tryptophan Hydroxylase of Prefrontal Cortex in type 2 Diabetic Rats. J Urmia Univ Med Sci. 2017; 27 (12) :1058-1067
URL: http://umj.umsu.ac.ir/article-1-3433-en.html

PhD student of Exercise physiology University of Tabriz, Tabriz Iran , ameneh.esmaeili@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (508 Views)

Background & Aims: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a self-management disease and depression is a common problem related to it. One of the causes of depression is serotonin (5-HT) depleted. The enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is known as limiting enzyme in the production of 5-HT in the brain. Aerobic exercise also has proven benefits in treating and reducing the incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Thus, in this study, we examine the effect of aerobic training on 5-HT and TPHof prefrontal cortex in type 2 diabetic rats.

Materials & Methods: This study is experimental and post-test. 30 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1- healthy control  2-diabetic control and 3- exercise diabetic. Groups 2 and 3 received streptozotocin (37mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection two weeks after the high-fat diet Diabetic training 5 times a week for 8 weeks run on a treadmill with duration and intensity that in the final weeks were 55 min / d  and 26 m / min  , respectively. 24 hours after the last exercise the prefrontal cortex of mice tissue samples of all groups were extracted and 5-HT (µg/g) and TPHconcentration was measured respectively by Elisa and Western Blotting from prefrontal cortex tissue samples. To evaluate the differences between the group of design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test at the significance level was less than 0.05 were used.

Results: Statistical analysis showed that 5-HT levels in the diabetic group were significantly lower than the healthy control group (P=0.001) and exercise diabetic (P=0.009) and average 5-HT between control group and exercise diabetic has no significant difference. TPH results show that the average diabetic groups were significantly lower than the healthy control group (P=0.000). The results showed that the amount of TPH in the exercise diabetic group was significantly higher than the diabetic control group (P=0.000).

Conclusion: In this study, diabetes reduces 5-HT in the prefrontal cortex. Some studies have shown that inflammation in type 2 increases the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, and these cytokines by increasing the activity of  indolamine 2, 3 dioxygenase in the brain alters the metabolism of tryptophan and reduces the production of 5-HT. Chronic activity reduces systemic and tissue inflammation, thus increasing 5-HT in the brain. The reduction of TPH due to diabetes can also be the factors that affect in the decrease of prefrontal 5-HT.

Full-Text [PDF 320 kb]   (280 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Exercise physiology
Received: 2016/06/15 | Accepted: 2016/07/25 | Published: 2017/03/12

References
1. Oxenkrug GF. Increased Plasma Levels of Xanthurenic and Kynurenic Acids in Type 2 Diabetes. Mol Neurobiol 2015;52(2):805–10.. [PubMed]
2. Lamb RE, Goldstein BJ. Modulating an oxidative-inflammatory cascade: potential new treatment strategy for improving glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and vascular function. Int J Clin Pract 2008;62(7):1087–95. [PubMed]
3. Maiese K, Chong ZZ, Shang YC. Mechanistic insights into diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem 2007;14: 1729-38. [PubMed]
4. Asghar S, Hussain A, Ali SMK, Khan AKA, Magnusson A. Prevalence of depression and diabetes: a population-based study from rural Bangladesh. Diabet Med 2007;24(8):872–7. [Google Scholar]
5. Khamseh M E, Baradaran H R, Rajabali H. Depression and diabetes in Iranian patients: a comparative study. Int J Psychiatry 2007; 37 (1): 81–6. [Google Scholar]
6. Li C, Ford E S, Zhao G, Ahluwalia I B, Pearson W S, Mokdad A H. Prevalence and correlates of undiagnosed depression among U.S. adults with diabetes: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2009; 83 (2): 268–79. [Google Scholar]
7. Anderson RJ, Freedland KE, Clouse RE, Lustman PJ. The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2001;24(6):1069–78. [Google Scholar]
8. Haghighatdoost F, Azadbakht L. Dietary treatment options for depression among diabetic patient, focusing on macronutrients. J Diabetes Res 2013; 2013:421832. [Google Scholar]
9. Zaki HF, Rizk HA. Role of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the antidepressant effects of malt extract. Afr J Pharmacol 2013; 7(46): 2960-71. [Google Scholar]
10. Kim TW, Lim BV, Baek D, Ryu D-S, Seo JH. Stress-Induced Depression Is Alleviated by Aerobic Exercise Through Up-Regulation of 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A Receptors in Rats. Int Neurourol J 2015;19(1):27–33. [Google Scholar]
11. Jans L a. W, Riedel WJ, Markus CR, Blokland A. Serotonergic vulnerability and depression: assumptions, experimental evidence and implications. Mol Psychiatry 2007;12(6):522–43. [Google Scholar]
12. Cowen PJ, Parry-Billings M, Newsholme EA. Decreased plasma tryptophan levels in major depression. J Affect Disord 1989;16(1):27–31. [Google Scholar]
13. Birkmayer W, Riederer P. Biochemical post-mortem findings in depressed patients. J Neural Transm 1975; 37: 95–109. [Google Scholar]
14. Boadle-Biber M C. Regulation of serotonin synthesis. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 1993; 60: 1–15. [PubMed]
15. Miyata S, Yamada N, Hirano S, Tanaka S, Kamei J. Diabetes attenuates psychological stress-elicited 5-HT secretion in the prefrontal cortex but not in the amygdala of mice. Brain Res 2007;1147:233–9. [Google Scholar]
16. Thorre K. Differential effects of restraint stress on hippocampal 5-HT metabolism and extracellular levels of 5-HT in streptozotocin-diabetic rats . Brain Res 772. 1997; 209–16. [Google Scholar]
17. Oxenkrug G. Insulin resistance and dysregulation of tryptophan-kynurenine and kynurenine-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolic pathways. Mol Neurobiol 2013;48(2):294–301. [Google Scholar]
18. Lin T W, Kuo Y M. Exercise Benefits Brain Function: The Monoamine Connection. Brain Sci 2013; 3: 39-53. [Google Scholar]
19. Langfort J, Barańczuk E, Pawlak D, Chalimoniuk M, Lukacova N, Marsala J, et al. The effect of endurance training on regional serotonin metabolism in the brain during early stage of detraining period in the female rat. Cell Mol Neurobiol 2006;26(7–8):1327–42. [Google Scholar]
20. Wang J, Chen X W, An G H, Zhang N, Ma Q. Effects of Exercise on Stress-Induced Changes of Norepinephrine and Serotonin in Rat Hippocampus. Chinese J Physiol 2013; 56(5): 245-52. [Google Scholar]
21. Liu W, Sheng H, Xu Y, Liu Y, Lu J, Ni X. Swimming exercise ameliorates depression-like behavior in chronically stressed rats: Relevant to proinflammatory cytokines and IDO activation. Behav Brain Res 2013; 242: 110–6. [Google Scholar]
22. Lee H, Ohno M, Ohta S, Mikami T. Regular moderate or intense exercise prevents depression-like behavior without change of hippocampal tryptophan content in chronically tryptophan-deficient and stressed mice. PLoS ONE 2013;8(7):e66996. [PubMed]
23. Bertram S, Brixius K, Brinkmann C. Exercise for the diabetic brain: how physical training may help prevent dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in T2DM patients. Endocrine 2016;53(2):350–63. [Google Scholar]
24. Kim MH , Leem YH. Chronic exercise improves repeated restraint stress-induced anxiety and depression through 5HT1A receptor and cAMP signaling in hippocampus. J Exerc Nutr Biochem 2014; 18(1): 97-104. [Google Scholar]
25. Langfort J, Barańczuk E, Pawlak D, Chalimoniuk M, Lukacova N, Marsala J, et al. The effect of endurance training on regional serotonin metabolism in the brain during early stage of detraining period in the female rat. Cell Mol Neurobiol 2006;26(7–8):1327–42. [Google Scholar]
26. Gilbert ER, Fu Z, Liu D. Development of a nongenetic mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Exp Diabetes Res 2011;2011:416254. [Article]
27. King A J. The use of animal models in diabetes research. Br J Pharmacol 2012;166877–94. [Google Scholar]
28. Reed MJ, Meszaros K, Entes LJ, Claypool MD, Pinkett JG, Gadbois TM, et al. A New Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes: The Fat-Fed, Streptozotocin-Treated Rat. J Metab 2000; 49(11): 1390-4. [Google Scholar]
29. Trulson ME, Jacoby JH, MacKenzie RG. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes reduces brain serotonin synthesis in rats. J Neurochem 1986;46(4):1068–72. [Google Scholar]
30. Støving RK, Hangaard J, Pedersen KK, Hagen C. Menstruation disorders in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus--epidemiology and causes. Ugeskr Laeg 1994;156(42):6180–4. [Google Scholar]
31. Hussein J, El-Matty D, El-Khayat Z, ABDEL-LATIF Y. Brain neurotransmitters in diabetic rats treated with CO enzyme Q10. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:554–6. [Article]
32. Chen H-I, Lin L-C, Yu L, Liu Y-F, Kuo Y-M, Huang A-M, et al. Treadmill exercise enhances passive avoidance learning in rats: the role of down-regulated serotonin system in the limbic system. Neurobiol Learn Mem 2008;89(4):489–96. [Google Scholar]
33. Herrera R, Manjarrez G, Hernandez J. Inhibition and kinetic changes of brain tryptophan-5-hydroxylase during insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the rat. Nutr Neurosci 2005;8(1):57–62. [Google Scholar]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or email:
Write the security code in the box

Send email to the article author


© 2015 All Rights Reserved | URMIA MEDICAL JOURNAL

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb